What’s high-voltage film capacitor ?
High-voltage films capacitors are important components for networks and various electrical devices. They are used to transport and distribute high-voltage electrical energy either for voltage distribution, coupling or capacitive voltage dividers; in electrical substations, circuit breakers, monitoring and protection devices; as well as to improve grid efficiency and reliability. Impregnated either with gas or oil, they can be categorized into six different classes, namely high-power capacitors, high-voltage capacitors, energy storage capacitors, starting capacitors, filter capacitors and discharge capacitors .
Prior to the 1970s, impregnated kraft paper was the main capacitor dielectric, usually used in combination with mineral oil or polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) as an impregnating liquid, however today these components are often manufactured using polymeric films. Thanks to their low dissipation factor, high dielectric strength, good stability and high availability, polymer films have gradually replaced the kraft paper used in capacitors. The switch from paper to polymer film has also shortened the capacitor production process by reducing the drying time required before impregnation. Furthermore, as with polymer technology, capacitor manufacturing technologies have evolved over time. Film capacitors have, thus, been fabricated using polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polycarbonate (PC) films, and most recently, biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP), which is the current choice for capacitors used in high-voltage applications.
How to design of High-Voltage Film Capacitors ?
Film capacitors are manufactured in the form of a winding using a capacitor winding machine, or in the form of a stack of dielectric films. These two manufacturing technologies are also respectively known as coil technology and the stacking technique. Four different types of film capacitors can be found in both technologies, namely mixed capacitors, all-paper capacitors, all-film capacitors and metallized film capacitors. Furthermore, depending on the choice of electrodes used, capacitors can take on two forms: dielectric armature capacitors and metallized capacitors. Usually, armature capacitors are used for very high-current applications, while metallized film capacitors are used for low-current applications.
Among these different film capacitors, super capacitors should also be mentioned. Unlike their high-voltage counterparts, they can use conducting polymers as electrodes, disconnected by a separator and placed in an electrolyte, a chemical liquid containing a mixture of positive and negative ions dissolved in water.
How to avoid capacitor rust?
The first step in building a metallized film capacitor is physical vapor deposition under vacuum of a very thin layer (10 to 100 nm) of metal, such as aluminum, zinc or zinc–aluminum, on one side (evaporated to the surface) of a roll of polymer film . Sometimes, small amounts of other alloy metals are added to prevent corrosion. There are five main types of metallized capacitor designs, namely the dry metallized film design , liquid-impregnated–gas-impregnated metallized film design, cellulosic paper design, liquid-impregnated metallized polymer film design (mixed or all-film dielectric) and stacked metallized film design . The coiling of the metallized capacitors is achieved by winding two sheets of metallized film on a hard, insulating cylindrical core. During the manufacturing process, the rolls are wound as tightly as possible to prevent the formation of air vacuoles or cavities .
The advantage of wire -wound metallized capacitors with a metallic film is that they take up two to three times less space than those carrying armatures, and additionally they exhibit self-healing behavior. The self-healing effect can be explained as follows: in the event of a defect in the dielectric material, the energy given off by the discharge is generally sufficient to vaporize the metallization around the defect, and therefore to electrically isolate it. The capacitor loses part of its capacitance but regains its isolation and continues to operate. Connections are made by metallization using the shoopage technique , which consists of depositing a molten metal on both faces of the capacitors . The shoopage is carried out by spraying metal, usually zinc or a zinc alloy, in order to connect to the metallization of the film .
According to, it is recommended that before metallization, the film should undergo a corona surface treatment in order to facilitate its adhesion to the metallization (however, this action is not mandatory). After this treatment, the film is metallized in a high-speed vacuum metallizer. This is usually followed by the application of a voltage higher than the nominal one in order to ensure that all defects created during manufacture are removed from the winding. This may lead to a slight decrease in capacitor capacity, but after the operation, the capacitor will remain within specifications. A known limitation in the fabrication process arises from the choice of connections, as they constitute the weak point of metallized film capacitors. Furthermore, the two films must each have a margin to avoid a short circuit between the electrodes.
What’s the Dielectric Materials ?
Ideal dielectric materials are characterized by an absence of free charges in their constituent volume. However, the chains constituting a polymer material can experience a local displacement movement under the action of an external electrical field. When an electrical field is applied to a dielectric material, the constituent dipoles orient themselves with a delay in time. The orientation of these dipoles is manifested under the phenomenon of polarization. This mechanism of deformation of the distribution of electrical charges is called the phenomenon of polarization. Polarization is a physical quantity used in the study of the properties of dielectric materials. It designates the density of electrostatic dipoles. Its mechanism is characterized by an increase in the capacitor’s ability to store charges after the introduction of a dielectric.
What’s the Polymer Film Treatments ?
The surface treatment of films before their metallization and winding is used to promote their adhesion and improve their performance. The use of the corona treatment is standard for polypropylene. This technique allows different groups (hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxylic groups) to be created on the surfaces of films, which increases the concentration of polar groups. The presence of these functional groups on a film’s surface in turn increases its free energy. In recent years, other treatments, such as plasma treatment with fluorine gases and vapors, ultraviolet irradiation and electron bombardment, have been carried out to modify the properties of film surfaces.